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如何提高高三学生写作能力

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如何提高高三学生写作能力
这两年的高三教学中,我在总结前几年带毕业班的得失基础上,尝试新的教法,总结自己的教学经验,注意完善自己的教学法,并重点在如何提高高三学生的写作能力方面作了尝试。
一、以句型为基础,通过句型训练和翻译提高学生的写作能力。
平时让学生做翻译,一般是根据课文里出现的一些重点词汇和句型进行练习,而学生在写作中却想不起运用平时在翻译中练习过的词汇和句型。一直在想,能不能在翻译的基础上提高学生的写作水平,让学生把平时的翻译运用到写作中去,让学生明白翻译和写作可以相辅相承,翻译可以是写作的一个语言的积累基础,而写作可以是对翻译的巩固和运用。正好有机会听了这样的一节课 我想老师们可以在教学设计和课堂教学中作这样的一些尝试和努力,现将这样的一个设计介绍如下。
本课是新世纪教材中的Witnessing the Sinking of the Titanic一课, 作为复习,一开始可以列出课文中的一些重点词组和句型让学生说出来。
之后,让学生做以下的几句翻译:
1.昨天我在上学的路上目睹了一场交通事故. (witness)
2.现场指挥的警察劝阻人们不要围观.  (discourage…from)
3.两名伤者被立即送往附近的医院.(in the vicinity)
4. 救护车的声音渐渐消失。(die away)
5. 人人应该遵守交通规则,努力避免这类事故. (make an effort)
在学生做完这五句翻译、老师讲解之后,要求学生围绕这五句句子,对原句可以作变动,在10至15分钟内扩展成一篇作文。
等学生写完后,教师可以让学生交换阅读并展示几位学生的作文进行点评。最后,老师还可以展示一下例文:
Yesterday on my way to school, I witnessed a traffic accident caused by the people who had broken the traffic rules .The accident was so severe that many people stood watching it. So the policeman in command discouraged them from watching around.   
   At once the two injured persons were sent to the hospital, which was in the vicinity. The noise of the ambulance carrying the injured died away in the distance.
   From this accident we have learnt that everyone should obey the traffic rules and make an effort to avoid such accidents.
在翻译的基础上进行写作的拓展,使学生能够学以致用,提高学生学习英语的积极性和实用性。当然,在教学设计过程中,要求教师对翻译进行巧妙的设计,不能过于牵强。
学生现在到了高三,语言材料已经有了一定的积累,如何让学生在写作中把语言运用出来,更显得重要。所以在学期一开始我就注意让学生对词汇和句型做笔记积累,并在平时的写作中进行有意识的指导并对运用得好的文章进行点评。
经过一段时间的训练,学生明显在写作中有所进步。
下面一篇是2007届高三(11)邹宇同学的一篇“I love reading”的文章。
I do love reading very much. Not only can reading broaden your horizons, but also it can be beneficial to you. The reasons why I love reading is as follows.
First, I can obtain a lot of knowledge which can not be available in my daily life. Second, I love reading the stories in the books. It is no wonder that the stories in the books are very wonderful. I will laugh with the happy story and I will cry with the sad story. There is no doubt that the story will make a tremendous impact on your mind, and I just enjoy this feeling.
All in all, one without reading books won’t be admitted to the society as a qualified citizen; one without reading books won’t know the true meaning of life. It is reading that can benefit you a lot. It’s universally acknowledged that the more you read, the better you will be. Student as I am, I also should do as much reading as possible.
在邹宇同学的这篇文章中,他不仅运用了不少诸如:do 、 it is … that…的强调, not only…but also、as的倒装, it is no wonder that…, there is no doubt…, It’s universally acknowledged that…, the more…the more…的句型;在词组的运用上也相当不错,比如:broaden your horizons, be beneficial to,obtain a lot of knowledge,be available,make a tremendous impact on,be admitted to the society as a qualified citizen等
再以一篇2007届高三(11)金晨同学的作文为例:
   Recently, schools have made a survey about “To whom do you go when in trouble ?”among the high school student.  The result of the survey is as follows.
58% students say they will turn to their classmates and friends for help when they are in trouble. 33% students think that they will ask their teachers and parents for help. And the rest believe that they prefer to overcome difficulties by themselves.
In my opinion,I prefer to communicate with my friends rather than ask my teachers and parents for help when I am in trouble. It is obvious that my friends have a lot more in common with me. Chances are that I can get a solution from my friends through our communication. On the other hand, teachers and parents are so strict with me that I am afraid to turn to them for help. In addition,the reason why I choose to ask my friends for help when I am in trouble is that friends are always my best teacher in my daily life. So I will come to my friends for help.
金晨同学以前的作文在词汇和句型上是很欠缺的,经常写到那里是那里,但在这篇作文中就有了很大的进步,在词汇上如:as follows,communicate with ,prefer to do…rather than do, have a lot more in common, be strict with;在句型上如:It is obvious that…, Chances are that…, so…that, the reason why…is that, 等运用很好的词汇和句型;在文章的流畅性上在第三段中她注意运用了如:In my opinion,On the other hand, In addition; 在文章第二段中她还注意用不同的词汇来表达同一个意思,如:turn to sb for help, ask sb for help, prefer to overcome difficulties; say, think, believe等。这篇文章不管是在内容、结构还是流畅性上,金晨同学都取得了不小的进步。
这里,对学生句型的训练,一定要专门进行循序渐进的训练,反复巩固,这样可以让学生有序的进行归纳,在写作过程中学生不会总觉得无法用英语语言表达。在第一学期还要对常见的各种类型的作文进行练习,让学生消除对写作的畏惧感。
二、以句型、词组为基础,通过阅读体会用法,并运用到写作中去。
经常有学生来问,背的单词、词组、句型没过几天就忘了,怎么办?原因很简单:反复太少,运用太少。其实,学生平时背了不少的单词、词组、句型甚至是句子,但到了翻译或者写作文,平时背的东西又全没了。尤其是写作文,大多数学生总是照着他们的中翻英的思维进行,写出来的文章Chinglish的味道很浓,里面要么一大堆的语法错误,要么用词不准确。
学生进入到高三,在对学生的训练中,很大一块内容是阅读的训练,在阅读中,虽然,他们会接触大量的语言现象,包括他们平时背过的单词、词组、句型,但学生并不会深入地体会。因此,教师在平时的阅读训练中完全可以利用适当的阅读材料随时来帮助学生巩固所背的单词、词组、句型,而且在这样的阅读材料中,可以让学生在上下文中体会用词的情景和适切性,并帮助学生在作文中准确用词。同时要让学生自己养成在平时整理归纳积累的自觉学习的好习惯,让学生在平时的阅读训练中,不再仅仅是做选择题,而是让他们有所学,并运用到写作中去,让学生学以致用。
   比如,在2007《高中英语教学与评估》的第90页,有一篇阅读中有这样的一段文字:
As estimated, one to five million cases of pesticide poisoning occur every year, resulting in several thousand deaths among agricultural workers. Most these poisonings occur in the developing world where safe heath standards can be unsatisfactory or non-existent. Although these countries use only 25% of global pesticide production, they account for a shocking 99% of the related deaths.
… As this case shows, the risk factors that contribute to pesticide poisonings in developing countries are often out of the workers’ direct control. Farmers must therefore rely on governments to take additional measures to reduce the risks to which they are exposed.
在这段文字中,我叫学生注意一些比较常用的单词、词组和结构,并让学生体会这些词在文章中是怎么运用的。之后在这样的一次写作中有学生就运用出来了。作文提示如下:根据图示,为报社写一篇我国交通事故的报道。并对这种情况提出改进措施(开头已给出)。
我国道路交通事故死亡人数居高不下
目前,我国汽车数量只占全世界的2%,
但事故死亡人数却占全世界的22%左右,
我国已成为世界上道路交通事故最为严重的国家。
2004年 全国发生道路交通事故 57万起  死亡人数 10.9万人
2005年1-10月 全国发生道路交通事故 56.6万起  死亡人数 9.56万人
这篇作文的图表描写是有点难度的,如果没有任何的辅导,学生会有很大的困难完成这样一个任务。
在这堂课中,我力图让学生通过阅读并模仿一些句式来进行写作,有学生的运用能力还是相当不错的:
2007届高三(4)班的陆祎同学在描写图表时是这样写的:
From the chart, we know that China accounts for only 2% of the world’s number of the cars, but it has a shocking rate 22% of the related deaths, making China a country with the highest death rate of traffic accidents in the world. As estimated, 570 thousand cases of traffic accidents occurred in 2004, in which 109 thousand people died. In 2005, from January to October, the number of the traffic accidents has risen up to 566 thousand cases,resulting in 956 thousand deaths.
2008届高三(9)班邬哓敏同学不仅图表描述运用了上面阅读材料中的很多的词汇和句式,而且在句型上也是运用的很到位。
The number of the traffic accidents has been growing in recent years. It is estimated that 570 thousand traffic accidents happened in 2004, resulting in 109 thousand deaths. To our astonishment, the number of traffic accidents during 10 months in 2005 is up to 566 thousand , which has been on the increase. While China occupies only 2% of global cars, it accounts for a shocking 22% of the related deaths.
The reason for the high death rate in our country can be listed as follows. First of all, it is taken for granted that the drivers are to blame for the traffic accidents. When they are driving, a moment of carelessness will bring about a serious accident. Secondly, there is no denying that citizens are also related to car accidents to a greater or lesser degree. The more strictly you observe the traffic rules, the fewer accidents will take place. Finally, faced with such a situation, the government is supposed to take effective measures in order to reduce the death rate.
In a word, every effort is well worth making to appeal to people to be fully aware of the importance of the traffic regulations. After all, life is the most valuable to everyone.
这俩位学生很明显是在学着运用阅读材料中的一些词汇和句式,只有当学生有意识地去模仿并运用单词、词组和句型,才有可能在写作中比较地道的用英文表达自己的思想。因此在进行阅读训练时,除了阅读技巧的指导外,还要随时让学生在阅读中随时注意一些词汇在特定语境中的运用并能加以复习巩固和运用,这样可以让学生随时养成记笔记的习惯,并养成一种自觉性,明白英语的学习重在平时的积累和运用,让学生养成一种良好的学习习惯。
   以句型为基础,通过句型训练和翻译进行写作的拓展,并在阅读中体会用法,并运用到写作中去,使学生能够学以致用,提高学生学习英语的积极性和实用性,同时也要求教师对翻译和作文都要加强辅导和指引。
三、指导学生围绕topic sentence进行写作
写作能力较差的学生,写作时,不仅用中文思维,直接翻译成英语,因此写出来的文章是中文式的英文。而且,平时虽然背了相当多的单词、词组和句子,但一到写作就缺少适当的词汇和句子结构去表达他们的观点,运用能力较差。教师很难在短时间内改变学生的中文思维,那么就要求学生把他们的观点恰当并正确地翻译成英语表达出来。
上海老教材第五册第一、二单元的课文让学生学会如何围绕topic sentence进行写作提供了很好的样板。在这两个单元的阅读指导上,我给学生阅读了下面一段内容:
When reading, bear in mind the general theme of the article as a whole. Read the piece paragraph by paragraph, noting what each paragraph says about the general theme. You don’t have to understand every single word at first, but you must try to get the general meaning. Pay attention to the way the sentences are joined to one another, so that you follow the thread of the narrative or argument.
    阅读中要求学生注意段与段之间的关系,句与句之间的关系,尤其是句、段与主题之间的关系,看他们相互之间是怎么连接起来的。这同样适合对学生的写作指导,要求学生写作时注意几个段落之间的关系,一个段落是如何围绕topic sentence进行展开,句与句之间如何安排。
在学习完第三单元News Sources之后,我设计了一堂写作课,要求学生把所学的词汇和句子围绕主题进行写作。一开始,为了让学生进入状态,我叫了俩位学生对第三单元围绕topic sentence进行口头复述,也为后面的写作打下伏笔,紧跟着我就让学生明确写作的内容:
1. 现代社会中信息的重要性;
2. 获得信息的主要手段,如:报纸,电视,广播和网络等;
3. 你对信息在未来的作用的看法.
之后,作为对第三单元的复习,我列出了课文中的一些重点词组和课文中的三个重点句子,让学生进行翻译,意图是让学生能把这些词组和句子与今天的写作联系起来,尤其是三个句子,这三个句子都用到了inform:
1. 人们有几种方法来得知新闻中的发展情况.
2.收音机和电视能帮助一个人很好的知道每天在发生的事情. 
3.报纸对任何一个想要得知世界发展的人是很有用的.
随后,提供学生几个有用的句型:
1. It is / was (in)convenient (for sb) to do sth
你从这儿到火车站很方便。
据我所知,在那个社区里购物很方便。
2. Only + 状语, 部分倒装
只有当战争在1949年结束后,他才开始了新的生活。
只有不断学习新事物,我们才能与时共进。
3. Whenever / When it comes to (doing) sth
说到教育,大部分人认为是一个终生学习。(lifetime)
无论什么时候涉及到学数学,她就变得很紧张。
提供学生这几个句型的意图在于让学生能在写作中有意识地进行句型运用。在学生完成这些句型翻译、老师讲解之后,要求学生围绕主题进行写作。
 先让学生根据以上的三个内容在草稿子上列举一下可能在写作中有用的词组或句型,然后重点围绕第二点让学生进行topic sentence 的写作。可以让学生先把topic sentence写出来,可以是刚才做翻译的原句:There are several ways for people to be informed about developments in the news.但鼓励学生有所改变,并当堂叫学生展示,如有学生就写了这样一句topic sentence: Nowadays, there are many ways for people to be informed of what is happening each day, such as the Internet, newspapers, television and so on.教师也可以提供学生topic sentence让学生选择, 如:There are many means of getting information which enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world. 这样让写作能力较差的学生不致于卡在topic sentence而无法进展下去。之后让学生在5分钟内扩展成段落。等学生写完后,教师可以让学生交换阅读并展示几位学生的作文进行点评。然后,再给学生5分钟写完整篇文章,然后进行分享点评,最后,提供学生样文,要求学生课后对自己的作文进行改进。
 在这堂课中,我力图让学生学会写topic sentence,并围绕topic sentence进行写作,其中加以一些sentence pattern引导学生在写作过程中用正确的英语结构去表达他们的观点,一步步引导学生,让学生从词到句,句到段最后到文章 ,有步骤和方法可依。经过这样一个过程,学生的词汇和句型丰富了,段落和整篇文章的编排上也流畅自然多了,也避免了很明显的中文式英语。下面我选取2008届高三(9)班三位学生的作文,这三篇文章很好的运用了我课堂上提供的材料:
With the development of science and technology, it is of great importance to be well-informed. The latest and useful information is necessary in various fields, resulting in one’s success or failure. That’s why we call the current era “Information Age”.
Nowadays, there are many ways for people to be informed of what is happening each day, such as the Internet, newspapers, television and so on. It is convenient for you to get a thorough knowledge of the current news through a daily newspaper, which only costs you a little money. Of course, information can also be gained by means of the Internet. So easy is it that you are able to obtain information in detail by clicking the mouse. In addition, watching TV offer an efficient way of getting information, which is often people’s first choice.
As more people are beginning to be conscious of the importance of information. It goes without saying that information will play an increasingly important role in the future.
-- written by 邬晓敏
“knowledge is power”. This is obviously true with the advent of the information age. With the development of science and technology, information becomes more and more important in our life. Without information, we will feel as if we would be isolated from the world.
There are many means of getting information which enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world. First, it is convenient for us to get information from newspapers. The daily newspaper can help us to be well informed about the current events which is happening both at home and abroad. Second, listening to the news on the radio is also a good choice to gain information. Just turn on the radio, and we can hear what is going on today. In addition, watching TV is a good way, too. Finally, almost all the families have a computer nowadays. We can make full use of the computer to obtain information as well. Just a “click”, and we can see what has happened today. Of course, there are still many other means of getting information.
I am sure that information will continue to play a vital role in our future life.
-- written by 惠圣铭
Nowadays, information has become one of the most important elements in our daily life. We can’t keep up with the times, if we are not able to be informed of what is happening each day as we are in “the Information Age”.
There are varieties of ways for people to know the current events. For example, the fastest way may be the Internet. We can get the latest news through it. When it comes to the commonest way of obtaining information, televisions are the best answer. Most people watch reports on national and international affairs on TV every day. Newspapers are the cheapest means. You can also easily pick up the news by reading today’s newspaper. Meanwhile, there are also many other effective ways for us to choose from.
In my opinion, information will become increasingly important and useful in the coming future with the rapid development of our society. There is no denying that we couldn’t live without information. 
-- written by 刘思岑
当然,这样的课在学生写作和分享的过程中,容易出现松散和不易掌控的情况,如果能利用网络,教师就可以更多了解学生整个写作过程,为之后的点评掌握更多的信息并做更好的准备。同时,我想教师在教学设计中要根据学生的实际情况设定学生可达到的目标,尤其对语言表达能力较差的学生,在开始一定要一步步引导他们去达到这些目标,让学生有方法和步骤可循,同时树立学生的自信心,减少学生对写作的畏难情绪。
当然,写作对学生的综合语言表达能力提出了一定的要求,要真正写好一篇文章,是靠平时通过阅读积累大量的语言素材,并进行模仿,对语言要有良好的驾驭能力。

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